Math and Science (CCSS-M and NGSS)

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) derive from the National Research Council K-12 Science Education Framework. The Framework provides a vision for developing world-class standards, curricula, instruction, and assessment in science.  The Framework is organized around scientific and engineering practices and crosscutting concepts that have primary foundations in mathematical reasoning and align closely with the CCSS-M Standards of Mathematical Practice.

Scientific and Engineering Practices

The first dimension of the K-12 Science Education Framework focuses on important practices used by scientists and engineers: modeling, developing explanations, and engaging in argumentation. These practices relate directly to use of mathematics and include:

  1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)
  2. Developing and using models
  3. Planning and carrying out investigations
  4. Analyzing and interpreting data
  5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
  6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)
  7. Engaging in argument from evidence
  8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Crosscutting Concepts

The second dimension of the Framework are crosscutting concepts that are found across fields in science. These crosscutting concepts again relate closely to mathematical reasoning and practice and are:

  1. Patterns
  2. Cause and effect: mechanism and explanation
  3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
  4. Systems and system models
  5. Energy and matter: flows, cycles, and conversation
  6. Structure and function
  7. Stability and change

Core Ideas in Four Disciplinary Areas

The third dimension of the Framework consists of the core ideas in the four central disciplinary areas of science. These core ideas are:

Physical Sciences

PS 1: Matter and its interactions

PS 2: Motion and stability: Forces and interactions

PS 3: Energy

PS 4: Waves and their applications in technologies for information transfer

Life Sciences

LS 1: From molecules to organisms: Structures and processes

LS 2: Ecosystems: Interactions, energy, and dynamics

LS 3: Heredity: Inheritance and variation of traits

LS 4: Biological Evolution: Unity and diversity

Earth and Space Sciences

ESS 1: Earth’s place in the universe

ESS 2: Earth’s systems

ESS 3: Earth and human activity

Engineering, Technology, and the Applications of Science

ETS 1: Engineering design

ETS 2: Links among engineering, technology, science, and society


National Research Council K-12 Science Education Framework

A Framework for K-12 Science Education Standards: Report Brief (.pdf)

The NSTA Reader's Guide to the Framework for K-12 Science Education (.pdf)

The Opportunity Equation: The National Research Council's Framework for K-12 Science Education: An Opportunity to Transform Science Education


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